vacuum pump


In this article, we are going to introduce the vacuum pump first, then you will get to know its different types and how they work, in the end we will help you to choose the suitable pump for your business.


What is a vacuum pump?

The vacuum pump is a device which makes negative pressure, on the other hand it is opposite of air compressor in performance. Creating a vacuum means nothing and no existence. Vacuum means absorption by suction and create less pressure than ambient pressure.

Vacuum pumps perform suction, they can do this in a wide range of cubic meters per hour.

Depending on the level of vacuum required for each application, electro-Motor and cylinder are designed to fit it, so we can have the highest efficiency with the lowest energy consumption. Light and very heavy objects such as rocks and …, can be easily moved by vacuum pumps.


How does vacuum pump work?

These pumps consist of two main parts, rotor and stator and electro-motor.

When electro-motor starts working and the rotational motion transmitted from the electro-motor to the rotor by couplings, rotor starts moving in the stator box. Meanwhile, the blades go out of the rotor and compresses the air inside the stator and takes the air out from another valve. This compression and replacement of the air creates a vacuum in the space where the air is discharged. This process is done permanently in Dezpart vacuum pumps and in any condition, even after achieving the final pressure, the vacuum operation would be continued and the pump would not be damaged.

Types of vacuum pumps:

Vacuum pumps can be divided into the following three categories:

1- Oil vacuum pump:

In this type, oil is used to cool the device.

2- Circulating water vacuum pump:

In this type, water is used to cool the device.

3- Dry vacuum pump:

In this type, air is used to cool the device.



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Example of a vacuum pump


What is the use of a vacuum pump?

Today, suction pumps are widely used in most industries. We have brought you some of the largest and most widely used industries below. If your industry is not on the list, doesn’t mean that it’s not used in your industry.

We suggest to contact us for comprehensive information.

• In direct applications and homes such as vacuum cleaners and some

industries such as laboratories, oil and gas industries.

• Vacuum pumps are used in hospitals especially the operating and delivery room. (Read medical, hospital and central suction)

• Vacuum suction is used for shaping. Such as vacuum forming and packaging industries. (read What is Vacuum Forming?)

• in printing houses, vacuum is used in paper printing machines. (Read vacuum pumps in the paper and pulp industry)

• In the gold and precious metals industry, vacuum pumps are used to inject gold in gypsum molds.

• vacuum presses and wood CNC is used in woodworking industry. (Read Membrane Vacuum)

• Vacuum has a special place in the food and beverage industry. ( Read the use of vacuum pumps in the food and beverage industry)

• These pumps are also used in the foundry industry) read casting in vacuum)

• Vacuum is used for suction in the cupping area. (read is body cupping necessary?)

• Vacuum has important role in rubber and plastic industries. (Read the best vacuum pump for rubber and plastic industry.)

• These types of pumps are used in laboratories. ( Read laboratory vacuum pumps)

• Vacuum pumps are also used in oil production and refinery.

• The vacuum pumps play an important role in the pharmaceutical industry. ( Read the use of vacuum pumps in the pharmaceutical industry)

• Vacuum is used in the production of disposable tableware. ( Read vacuum pump disposable tableware and packaging)

Vacuum pumps have many other uses.

How many categories are in the industry for vacuum pumps?

Today, the most widely used vacuum pump in the industry is rotary vane vacuum pump.

In this pump centrifugal force and rotational motion creates vacuum. It is very important to use the right materials to build a vacuum pump.

As compressors like Rotary vane compressors, Cylindrical oil compressors and Graphite or dry compressors are used to Create compressed air, there are different types of vacuum pumps which are used to create negative pressure.


Different types of vacuum pumps in terms of vacuum

  • • Primary pumps: Suction pressure range is low.

    • Reinforcement pumps: Suction pressure range is low.

    • Secondary pumps (high vacuum): extremely high suction pressure range.

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Figure 1 – Relationships and subcategories in different types of vacuum


Two technologies used in suction pumps

Two technologies used in suction pumps are gas transmission and gas absorption. Transmission pumps work by transporting gas molecules by either kinetic action or positive displacement. The same number of gas molecules entered the pump would be discharged. The gas pressure is slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure while pulling out. The ratio of exhaust pressure (output) to the lowest pressure obtained (input) is called compression.

Kinetic transfer pumps work according to the motion transfer Principle and the gas is directed to the pump outlet. Kinetic pumps usually do not have a sealing volume.

Suction pumps work by capturing gas molecules on surfaces inside a vacuum system. Suction pumps operate at a slower flow rate than transfer pumps and Produce an oil-free vacuum. Recording pumps operate using cryogenic compression, ionic reaction or chemical reaction and have no moving parts.


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Wet or dry vacuum pump?

Types of vacuum pumps are briefly described below:

Vacuum pump technologies, depending on whether the gas is exposed to oil or water during the compression process, it is considered damp (Lubricated or dry). Wet pumps lubricate or seal themselves using oil or water. This liquid can contaminate the pumped gas. On the other hand, dry vacuum pumps have no liquid in the pumping gas. Dry pumps reduce the risk of system contamination and oil leakage in comparison with wet pumps.

Vacuum systems do not easily change from wet to dry. The chamber and pipes are contaminated by wet pump must be thoroughly cleaned or replaced, Otherwise, the gas will contaminate them during the next work.



Types of vacuum pumps

A summary of the most common types of vacuum pumps based on performance is given below:

Primary vacuum pumps

Rotary vane vacuum pump (wet, positive displacement)



In rotary pump, gas enters the inlet port and exits by a rotor that compresses the gas and transfers to the outlet/exhaust valve. (Figure 3)

The valve has a spring and discharges gas if it passes atmospheric pressure. Oil is used to seal and cool vans.

Achievable pressure of rotary pump is determined by the number of used steps and their tolerance. The two-phase design can provide a pressure of 1 × 10*-3 mbar. Pumping speed 0.7-275 m 3 / h (0.4-162 ft 3 / min).



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Liquid ring vacuum pump (wet, positive displacement)

The liquid ring pump (Figure 4) compresses the gas by rotating it from the van located outside the center of the pump. The liquid in the pump is fed, and forms a movable cylindrical ring against inside of the shelf.

This liquid ring seals the space between the blades formed compression chambers.

Inactivity of the impeller rotation axis and pump chamber change volume cycle enclosed by vans and rings which compress the gas and discharges it through the port at the end of the chamber.

This pump has a simple and durable design because the shaft and the impeller are the only moving parts in it.

This type of pump has a large capacity range and can provide a pressure of 30 mbar using water at 15 ° C (59 ° F). Lower pressures are also possible with other fluids. Its pumping speed range is between 25 and 30,000 meters 3 / h (15 to 17,700 feet 3 / min).



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Diaphragm vacuum pump (dry and positive displacement)

The diaphragm is quickly flexed by a rod mounted on a cam driven by a motor and causes gas pass through one valve and exit through another valve. Diaphragms and valves typically last more than 10,000 hours. Diaphragm pumps (Figure 5) are used to support small combination turbocharged molecular pumps in clean and high vacuum applications. This pump has a small capacity that is widely used in research and development laboratories for sample preparation.

An example of a final pressure (5×10*-8 mA) that can be achieved when using diaphragm pumps, the pumping speed range is 0.6 to 10 meters 3 / h (5.9 -0.35 feet 3 / min).



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Vacuum scroll pump (dry and positive displacement)

The scroll pump (Figure 6) uses two scrolls that do not rotate but where an interior is in circulation, it traps a volume of gas and reduces it to an increasing volume. Compression to reach the minimum volume and maximum pressure in the center of the spirals, where the output valve is located.

The typical final pressure is (1×10 * -2 Mbar). Its pumping speed range is from 5.0 to 46 meters 3 per hour (3.0 to 27 feet 3 per minute).



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Root vacuum pump (dry and positive displacement)


The Roots pump (Figure 7) is primarily used as a vacuum booster and it is designed to remove large volumes of gas.

Two non-touch and anti-rotation mesh lobes for continuous gas transfer in one direction through the pump. This increases the performance of the primary pump. Increases pumping speed by approximately 7: 1 and improves final pressure by approximately 10: 1.

Root pumps can have two or more lobes. A typical final pressure is obtained at 10*-3 Torr (in combination with primary pumps). Pumping speed is 100,000 meters 3 / hour (58860 feet 3 / min).



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Claw vacuum pump (dry and positive displacement)

The claw pump (Figure 8) has two anti-rotation claws and works similarly with the Roots pump except the gas is transmitted axially and not from top to bottom. This approach is often used in combination with a Roots pump, which is a primary Roots-claw pump combination in which there are a series of root and claw steps in a common shaft.

This device is designed for tough industrial environments and offers high speed.

A typical final pressure is obtained in 10*-3 mbar. It has a pumping speed range of 100 to 800 cubic meters per hour (59 to 472 ft3 / min).



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Screw vacuum pump (dry and positive displacement)

The screw pump (Figure 9) uses two rotary screws, one left hand and one right hand. This method is without touch and the rotation transfers the gas from one end to another.

The screws are designed in such a way that as the gas passes, the space between them is reduced and compressed and causes less pressure in the end of the inlet.

This pump has high power capacity, suitable liquid efficiency and tolerance of dust and tough environments.

A typical ultimate pressure is approximately 10* -12 Torque. It has a pumping speed range up to 750 cubic meters / hour (440 feet 3 / min).



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Secondary vacuum pumps


Turbo-molecular vacuum pumps (dry and kinetic transfer)

Molecular turbo pumps (Figure 9) work by transferring kinetic energy to gas molecules using high-speed rotating blades and angled blades that spin patrol at high speeds.

The blade tip speed is typically 250 to 300 meters per second or 670 miles per hour.

By transferring motion from the rotating blades to the gas, the molecules are moving toward the output more likely. These models offer low pressures and low transmission rates. Normal final pressure is less than (7.5 × 10 *-11 Torque). The pumping speed range is 50 to 5000 liters per second. The pumping speed range is 50 to 5000 liters per second.

The blade pumping steps are often combined with the pulling steps, which enable turbo-molecular pumps discharge higher pressures.


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Steam diffusion vacuum pumps (wet transfer, kinetic transfer)




Steam diffusion pumps (Figure 10) transfer kinetic energy to gaseous molecules using a high-velocity heated oil stream. Which “pulls” the gas from the inlet to the outlet and creates less pressure at the inlet.

These pumps have older technology and are almost replaced by dry molecular turbo pumps. They have no moving parts and provide high reliability and low cost.

A typical final pressure is less than 7.5 × 10 * -11. Its pumping speed range is between 10-50,000 liters per second.



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Cryopump (dry, inlet)


Cryopump (Figure 11) works by capturing and storing gases and vapors instead of transporting them through a pump.

They use cryogenic technology to freeze or trap gas at a very cold surface (evaporation or accumulation) at 10 to 20 ° C (- 260 ° C).

These pumps are very efficient but have a limited petrol storage capacity.

The collected gases and vapors must be periodically removed from the pump by heating the surface and pumping it through another vacuum pump (which is called regeneration).

Cryopumps also require a compressor to cool surfaces. This pump can produce a pressure of 7.5 × 10 *-10 and a pumping speed range of 1200-4200 L / S.






Ion spray pumps (dry, inlet)


The ion spray pump (Figure 12) traps gases using evaporative principles (thereby combining active chemicals to remove them with gases) and ionization (gas molecules are made by conductive and electrically trapped) gases.

A high magnetic field with a high voltage (4 to 7 kV) creates clouds of positive electron ions (plasma) that are placed on a titanium cathode and sometimes an additional secondary cathode composed of tantalum.

The cathode captures the gases and then the gutcher film is obtained. This phenomenon is referred to as spotting.

The cathode must be replaced periodically. These pumps have no moving parts and can reach a pressure less than 7.5 × 10*-12.

The maximum pumping is 1000 liters per second.



پمپ یون پاش

  • In summary …

  • This article briefly describes what a vacuum pump is and the different types of vacuum pumps, but to fully understand the advantages and limitations of each technology, more detailed discussion is needed.

    Vacuum pumps are one of the most important components of vacuum furnaces.




1. Herring, Daniel, Vacuum Heat Treatment, Volume I, BNP Media, 2012.

2. Docers Felixstowe ( http//

3. Philip Hoffman ( (4)


Suction pump brands

There are many suction pumps which will be given to you according to the type of use and financial ability.

We will introduce some examples of vacuum pump brands below:

Bosch pump

Value pump

Despart pump

Merrick Pump

Asia Pump

Mottahed pump

Which suction pump is suitable for us?

As vacuum pumps are fundamentally different in nature and performance with air compressors, the correct choice of vacuum pump varies according to the type of activity and profession desired.

The differences in the types of vacuum pumps is so important that sometimes the wrong choice causes losses to industry owners and are sometimes irreparable. Dezpart Company is committed to help you choose the right pump. Contact us.

Click here to view vacuum pumps.


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